Friday, June 7, 2013

Las tablas pivote ejemplo en MySQL

Original post: http://anothermysqldba.blogspot.com/2013/06/pivot-tables-example-in-mysql.html

Me preguntaron sobre la forums.mysql.com sitio cómo construir una tabla de suscripción para seguir los cursos y etc

Era más fácil para publicar el ejemplo completo aquí, es un ejemplo breve resumen, pero usted consigue la idea.

El concepto es simple.
Nosotros guardamos la información en filas que podemos tirar de vuelta en diferentes columnas cuando sea necesario.

La solicitud era para una suscripción de estudiantes y cursos ....

Primero construí algunas tablas y datos ...


CREATE TABLE `details` (
`details_id` int(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
`details_label` varchar(100) DEFAULT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (`details_id`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB;
INSERT INTO details VALUES (1,'First Name') , (2, 'Last Name') ;

CREATE TABLE `subjects` (
`subject_id` int(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
`subject` enum('History','English','Geography','Mathematics','Science','Social Studies','Foreign Languages','Visual and Performing Arts') DEFAULT NULL,
`subject_detail` varchar(255) DEFAULT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (`subject_id`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB;
INSERT INTO subjects VALUES (1,'Mathematics', 'Algebra') , (2,'History', '1826-1926') , (3,'Geography', ' Africa Studies') ;

CREATE TABLE `student` (
`student_id` int(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
`email` varchar(150) DEFAULT NULL,
`student_key` varchar(20) DEFAULT NULL,
`date_updated` timestamp NOT NULL DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP ON UPDATE CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,
PRIMARY KEY (`student_id`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB;
INSERT INTO student (`student_id` ,`email`,`student_key`) VALUES (1,'foobar@gmail.com','iasdjf');

CREATE TABLE `student_details` (
`student_details_id` int(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
`student_id` int(11) DEFAULT 0,
`details_id` int(11) DEFAULT 0,
`details_value` varchar(255) DEFAULT NULL,
`date_updated` timestamp NOT NULL DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP ON UPDATE CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,
PRIMARY KEY (`student_details_id`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB;
INSERT INTO student_details VALUES (NULL,1,1,'John',NOW()) , (NULL,1,2,'Smith',NOW()) ;

CREATE TABLE `courselist` (
`courselist_id` int(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
`student_id` int(11) DEFAULT 0,
`subject_id` int(11) DEFAULT NULL,
`status` enum('Waitlisted','Subscribed','Denied') DEFAULT NULL,
`date_updated` timestamp NOT NULL DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP ON UPDATE CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,
PRIMARY KEY (`courselist_id`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB;
INSERT INTO courselist VALUES ( NULL,1, 1 , 'Waitlisted' , NOW() ) , ( NULL,1, 2 , 'Subscribed' , NOW() ) , ( NULL,1, 3 , 'Denied' , NOW() ) ;

Primero simplemente sacar información sobre el estudiante:


> SELECT s.student_id , d.details_label , sd.details_value
-> FROM student s
-> INNER JOIN student_details sd ON s.student_id = sd.student_id
-> INNER JOIN details d ON sd.details_id = d.details_id;
+------------+---------------+---------------+
| student_id | details_label | details_value |
+------------+---------------+---------------+
| 1 | First Name | John |
| 1 | Last Name | Smith |
+------------+---------------+---------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)


Podemos profundizar más y seguir sumando información ...


> SELECT s.student_id , d.details_label , sd.details_value , c.status, j.subject, j.subject_detail
-> FROM student s
-> INNER JOIN student_details sd ON s.student_id = sd.student_id
-> INNER JOIN details d ON sd.details_id = d.details_id
-> INNER JOIN courselist c ON s.student_id = c.student_id
-> INNER JOIN subjects j ON j.subject_id = c.subject_id
-> ;
+------------+---------------+---------------+------------+-------------+-----------------+
| student_id | details_label | details_value | status | subject | subject_detail |
+------------+---------------+---------------+------------+-------------+-----------------+
| 1 | First Name | John | Waitlisted | Mathematics | Algebra |
| 1 | Last Name | Smith | Waitlisted | Mathematics | Algebra |
| 1 | First Name | John | Subscribed | History | 1826-1926 |
| 1 | Last Name | Smith | Subscribed | History | 1826-1926 |
| 1 | First Name | John | Denied | Geography | Africa Studies |
| 1 | Last Name | Smith | Denied | Geography | Africa Studies |
+------------+---------------+---------------+------------+-------------+-----------------+
6 rows in set (0.00 sec)



Eso no es muy útil o limpia, aunque ...
Así que de nuevo esta para tirar exactamente lo que queremos ...


> SELECT s.student_id ,sd1.details_value as FIRST_NAME, sd2.details_value as LAST_NAME, c.status, j.subject, j.subject_detail
-> FROM student s
-> INNER JOIN student_details sd1 ON s.student_id = sd1.student_id AND sd1.details_id = 1
-> INNER JOIN student_details sd2 ON s.student_id = sd2.student_id AND sd2.details_id = 2
-> INNER JOIN courselist c ON s.student_id = c.student_id
-> INNER JOIN subjects j ON j.subject_id = c.subject_id
-> ;
+------------+------------+-----------+------------+-------------+-----------------+
| student_id | FIRST_NAME | LAST_NAME | status | subject | subject_detail |
+------------+------------+-----------+------------+-------------+-----------------+
| 1 | John | Smith | Waitlisted | Mathematics | Algebra |
| 1 | John | Smith | Subscribed | History | 1826-1926 |
| 1 | John | Smith | Denied | Geography | Africa Studies |
+------------+------------+-----------+------------+-------------+-----------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)